Dissecting the Policy Shocks in Today's Cost of Living Crisis:
Fuel Subsidy Removal or Exchange Rate Unification.


Nigeria is currently facing an acute cost of living crisis, with inflation soaring and the burden on households growing heavier. In this critical juncture, two monumental policy shocks have emerged as potential game-changers: the removal of fuel subsidies and the unification of the exchange rate. Both these policy moves are seen as crucial steps to address economic challenges, but they come with their unique sets of implications and controversies. This article aims to dissect these policy shocks and their potential impacts on Nigeria's cost of living crisis.

Fuel Subsidy Removal: A Fiscal Tightrope

Fuel subsidy removal is often seen as a prudent fiscal move aimed at reducing government expenditure and fostering economic efficiency. Subsidies, in this context, refer to the government's financial support for the cost of fuel, which keeps consumer prices artificially low. While these subsidies may seem beneficial on the surface, they pose substantial economic challenges.

Upon the removal of fuel subsidies, fuel prices inevitably surge. This, in turn, has a cascading effect on the economy. First, transportation costs soar. Fuel is the lifeblood of transportation in Nigeria, and its price directly impacts the cost of moving goods and people across the country. The transport sector's heavy reliance on petrol and diesel means that any increase in fuel prices drives up the cost of commuting and logistics. Ordinary citizens bear the brunt of these increased costs as they see their daily expenses skyrocket.

Second, the impact extends to food prices. Nigeria's agricultural supply chain heavily depends on road transportation. When transportation costs rise due to higher fuel prices, the cost of moving agricultural products from farms to markets surges. This increase in the cost of food distribution translates into higher prices for essential food items, compounding the woes of ordinary citizens.

Exchange Rate Unification: A Currency Conundrum

Exchange rate unification is a policy designed to simplify and harmonise the various exchange rates utilised within Nigeria's financial system. This complexity arises from the coexistence of multiple exchange rates, including an official rate and a parallel market rate, resulting in economic distortions. Unification aims to streamline these rates into a single, more accurate exchange rate.

However, the unification process itself is intricate. When exchange rates are unified, it often leads to a significant devaluation of the domestic currency, the Naira in this context. A devalued Naira implies that a larger amount of Naira is required to purchase a single unit of a foreign currency, typically the U.S. dollar. This has substantial implications for the Nigerian economy.

Since the policy's implementation, Nigerians, especially those engaged in forex exchange-related businesses, have encountered substantial hardships. The effectiveness of the policy has been hindered by challenges in the foreign exchange (Fx) market's supply. As long as the U.S. dollar remains inaccessible through official channels, businesses and individuals in need of foreign currency will continue to resort to the parallel market, where they are aware of its unavailability due to its absence from official sources. Consequently, this drives up the premium on the parallel market, encourages hoarding and hedging, and perpetuates high-level financial inadequacies.

The Cost of Living Crisis

The cost of living crisis in Nigeria has reached alarming levels. Inflation rates have surged, eroding the purchasing power of the average citizen. Food prices have skyrocketed, making basic necessities less affordable. Many Nigerians are struggling to make ends meet, and addressing this crisis has become a top priority. The Nigerian populace is bearing the brunt of these economic challenges, and addressing this crisis has become a matter of utmost urgency. The government is under immense pressure to formulate and implement policies that will alleviate the hardships faced by its citizens and restore economic stability

The Dilemma

Both the removal of fuel subsidies and the unification of the exchange rate in Nigeria come with their respective advantages and drawbacks. These policy changes have had immediate consequences, particularly in the context of inflation and the cost of living.

The removal of fuel subsidies, while a step towards fiscal responsibility, resulted in higher fuel prices. This increase had a cascading effect throughout the economy. Transportation costs rose as fuel prices surged, leading to increased fares for commuters and higher logistics expenses for businesses. Additionally, the increased cost of fuel had a direct impact on food prices, as transportation costs for goods from farms to markets escalated. Consequently, the average Nigerian citizen faced the burden of elevated living costs.

On the other hand, the unification of the exchange rate aimed to simplify the complex web of multiple exchange rates used in Nigeria's financial system. However, this unification process led to a significant devaluation of the Naira. A devalued Naira means that more of the domestic currency is required to purchase one unit of a foreign currency, typically the U.S. dollar. This devaluation has profound implications for the Nigerian economy.

The devaluation of the Naira is closely linked to inflation, and within the context of exchange rate unification, it exacerbates inflationary pressures. A weakened Naira makes imported goods more expensive. Nigeria heavily relies on imports for a wide range of goods, including fuel, machinery, and even essential food items. As the Naira's value diminishes, the cost of these imports surges. This directly impacts the average Nigerian, who experiences higher prices for everyday essentials.

It's crucial to emphasise that the scope of imported items extends beyond luxury goods. It encompasses critical items like medical supplies, agricultural machinery, and even fuel itself. These essential goods becoming more expensive have strained the budgets of ordinary citizens and impacted their quality of life.

While the removal of fuel subsidies and exchange rate unification hold merits in terms of economic reform and simplification, they have had immediate repercussions for the Nigerian population. Higher fuel prices resulting from subsidy removal have increased transportation and food costs. Simultaneously, exchange rate unification's devaluation of the Naira has exacerbated inflation, making imported goods, including essentials, more expensive for ordinary Nigerians. These challenges underscore the complexities of implementing such policies and the need for thoughtful mitigation strategies to protect vulnerable populations from the adverse effects of these economic reforms.

Balancing the Scales: Solutions and Mitigations

The Nigerian government faces a formidable task in addressing the cost of living crisis. Striking a balance between the removal of fuel subsidies and exchange rate unification is essential. Policies must be carefully calibrated to minimise the adverse impacts on vulnerable populations. Simultaneously, the government should explore measures to enhance social safety nets, promote agricultural productivity, and stimulate economic growth.

i.             Targeted Subsidy Programs

To alleviate the immediate burden of fuel price hikes, the government can consider targeted subsidy programs that provide financial relief to vulnerable citizens. These programs can take the form of cash transfers or subsidies on essential goods to shield the most economically disadvantaged segments of society.

ii.            Currency Stabilization Measures

While exchange rate unification is a necessary long-term reform, the government can implement measures to stabilise the Naira's value in the short term. This may involve interventions in the foreign exchange market to manage volatility and prevent rapid devaluation.

iii.          Investment in Domestic Production

To address the root causes of rising prices, the government can promote domestic production of essential goods. This reduces reliance on imports and mitigates the impact of currency devaluation on the cost of living.

iv.          Social Safety Nets

Strengthening social safety nets can provide a buffer for citizens facing economic hardships. This includes expanding access to healthcare, education, and other essential services to reduce the overall cost of living.

v.            Public Awareness and Communication

Transparent communication about the necessity of these policy reforms, their short-term challenges, and the government's commitment to addressing citizens' concerns is essential. It helps manage expectations and fosters public support.

 Nigeria's cost of living crisis demands bold and strategic policy responses. The removal of fuel subsidies and exchange rate unification are both potent tools in this endeavour. However, their implementation requires meticulous planning, effective communication, and a commitment to shielding the most vulnerable from the immediate shocks. The ultimate goal is not just stabilising the economy but ensuring that Nigerians can afford a decent standard of living, even in the face of these monumental policy shifts. It's a challenging journey, but one that is essential for the well-being of the nation's citizens and the overall economic health of Nigeria.


Research & Advocacy Department,

Chartered Institute of Directors (CIoD), Nigeria

28, Cameron Road, Ikoyi, Lagos




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